Help with Writing!!!! The K-State Writing Center provides one-to-one consultations withstudents to talk about their writing projects with trained writing tutors (most of whom are fellow students). We provide feedback at any stage of the writing process to enable students to gain awareness of writing strategies; improve writing assignments or non-academic writing; and increase their sense of competence, confidence, and ownership in writing.
The School of Engineering employs a full time editor who will help graduate students with thesis, dissertation, and professional papers. See http://www.engg.ksu.edu/ergp/resources/services.html for more information.
The following information is taken from the ACM Computer Society Reference guide at http://www.computer.org/author/style/refer.htm. You may look there for further clarifications and updates.
Each reference should be numbered and placed in alphabetical order by author last name.
Article in a collection
A.J. Albrecht, "Measuring Application-Development Productivity," Programmer Productivity Issues for the Eighties, 2nd ed., C. Jones, ed., IEEE CS Press, 1981, pp. 34-43.
Article in a conference proceedings
In general, delete prepositions in conference titles where the meaning is clear without them (see Abbreviations section). Use the ordinal symbol (2nd, 14th, 23rd) for annual conferences. If available, include the conference initialism in parentheses-for example, (ICDE 98)-following the abbreviated name of the conference.
M. Weiser, "Program Slicing," Proc. 14th Int'l Conf. Data Eng. (ICDE 98), IEEE CS Press, 1998, pp. 439-449.
Article in a journal or magazine
Use lowercase for vol. and no. Page numbers through 9999 do not require a comma.
I.E. Sutherland, R.F. Sproull, and R.A. Schumaker, "A Characterization of 10 Hidden-Surface Algorithms," ACM Computing Surveys, vol. 6, no. 1, Mar. 1974, pp. 1-55.
W.M. Newman and R.F. Sproull, Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics, McGraw-Hill, 1979, p. 402.
M.A., Arbib, ed., The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks, MIT Press, 1998.
Y. Yao et al., "Web Intelligence (WI): Research Challenges and Trends in the New Information Age," Web Intelligence: Research and Development, LNAI 2198, N. Zhong et al., eds., Springer-Verlag, 2001, pp. 1-17.
R. Focardi and R. Gorrieri, eds., Foundations of Security Analysis and Design, LNCS 2171, Springer-Verlag, 2001.
Note: According to CMS 17.91, if the book can be located without it, the series title can be omitted to save space.
Place the term "CD-ROM" following the publication's title and preceding the publisher's name. For example, the format for a book that is available on CD-ROM is
W.M. Newman and R.F. Sproull, Principles of Interactive Computer Graphics, CD-ROM, McGraw-Hill, 1979.
Dissertation or thesis
B. Fagin, A Parallel Execution Model for Prolog, doctoral dissertation, Dept. Computer Sciences, Univ. California, Berkeley, 1987.
M. Nichols, The Graphical Kernel System in Prolog, master's thesis, Dept. Computer Science and Eng., Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., 1985.
Online-only Electronic publication
F. Kaplan, "From Baghdad to Manila: Another Lousy Analogy for the Occupation of Iraq, Slate, 21 Oct. 2003; http://slate.msn.com/id/2090114/.
R. Bartle, "Early MUD History," Nov. 1990; www.ludd.luth.se/mud/aber/mud-history.html.
URL formatting and punctuation
Verify URLs by copying and pasting them into your browser. Some addresses don't start with http://-other protocols are also legitimate, for example, ftp:-and some addresses don't need or even won't work with www.
Be sure to include all punctuation exactly as supplied (hyphens and tildes, in particular, are very common in Web addresses).
If a URL must run across more than one line, follow these guidelines:
- Break only after a forward slash or a "dot" (period).
- Do not split the double slash.
- Do not split at hyphens, tildes, and so on that are part of the address.
- Do not introduce hyphens to break words (be very careful about this as Word may try to hyphenate automatically).
- Separating the extension (for example, the html at the end) is discouraged.
Some URL examples using http://www.web-pac.com/mall/pacific/start.html:
J. Butler, "CASE Outlook," System Development Newsletter, Nov. 1987, Applied Computer Research, Phoenix, Ariz., Nov. 1987, p. 3.
Non-English source (Including original title)
A.N. Zhirabok and A.E. Shumskii, Electronnoe Modelirovanie [Electronic Modeling], Energoatomizdat, Leningrad, 1984 (in Russian).
Non-English source (Original title unprintable)
T. Nakayama et al., "NEC Corporation Develops 32-Bit RISC Microprocessor," Nikkei Electronics, vol. 6, no. 12, Dec. 1995, pp. 111-121 (in Japanese).
Include as much information as possible about the article or paper, including the name of the publication and date if known. If the author does not know where the article will be published, use the phrase "submitted for publication."
R. Lee, "New-Media Processing," to be published in IEEE Micro, vol. 25, no. 1, Jan./Feb. 2004.
G. Stein, "Implementing Cubist Structures," submitted for publication.
Personal communication and unpublished materials
These are usually not referenced because they are not available to the reader. Authors who insist on attributing material obtained through personal communication should identify the source of the information in the main text (for example, As Maria Youngblood stated during a conference panel,...).
Computing in Science & Eng., special issue on computing in optics, Nov./Dec. 2003; http://csdl.computer.org/comp/mags/cs/2003/06/c6toc.htm.
IEEE Std. 1596-1992, Scalable Coherent Interface (SCI), IEEE, 1992.
C. Evans et al., "Web Services Reliability (WS-Reliability), v. 1.0," joint specification by Fujitsu, NEC, Oracle, Sonic Software, and Sun Microsystems, Jan. 2003; http://developers.sun.com/sw/platform/technologies/ws-reliability.html
"Requirements for Software-Engineering Databases," tech. memo, Imperial Software Technology, London, 1983.
Technical report with report number
C. Hoffman and J. Hopcroft, Quadratic Blending Surfaces, tech. report TR-85-674, Computer Science Dept., Cornell Univ., 1985.
Technical report without report number
E. Yarwood, Toward Program Illustration, tech. report, Computer Systems Research Group, Univ. of Toronto, 1977.
Technical or user manual
Unix System V Interface Definition, no. 2, vol. 2, AT&T, Murray Hill, N.J., 1986.
Use each author's initials and last name. Leave no space between initials, but do leave a space between the period following the last initial and the first letter of the last name: E.F. Codd.
If an entry has more than three authors, use the first author's name and follow it with "et al.": T.G. Lewis et al.
Include just the year of publication for books. Include the month and year of publication for periodicals. If a periodical appears more frequently than monthly, include the date with the month: 15 Mar. 2000. If a periodical appears quarterly, use the season or issue number, depending on the periodical's usage. For periodicals that appear irregularly, do not use the month: vol. 16, no. 5, 1997.
Spell out May, June, and July; abbreviate the other months: Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov., and Dec. Use a slash for bimonthly issues (Aug./Sept. 2000) and a hyphen or en dash for a quarterly (July-Sept. 2000). Capitalize the names of seasons: Winter, Spring, Summer, and Fall.
References to electronic repositories are acceptable in IEEE Computer Society publications, but they are not the references of choice for formal archival use. Wherever possible, replace such references with references to printed material. However, when this is not possible, cite the electronic address along with as much additional information as possible. If the address itself becomes invalid in the future, the other information might help researchers find the same document elsewhere on the Internet. At the very least, a reference to an electronic source must include the Internet URL.
When citing an electronic reference simply to give the reader a place to go for more information, instead of including it in a formal reference list, noting it within parentheses in the running text is acceptable. Because such references break the flow of the text, use them sparingly and do not set them off in italic, boldface, or typewriter font. If an article includes many electronic references, consider placing them in a sidebar or a broken-out list.
When referring to various portions of a WWW page in text, use an initial cap for the designated item. Do not set it off with quotes, parentheses, or italics. Thus, a sample reference could be, The proper way to search the page is to click on the Go button, or The text can be found in the Publications section of the company's Web site.
When referring to hypertext links found on a Web page (the highlighted underlined words), put the entire text of the link in quotes. For example, Click on the "go here" link to reach the table.
When referring to URLs in a string of text, don't apply extra formatting.
Italicize names of books (including collections), magazines, journals, newsletters, theses, dissertations, proceedings, manuals, and technical reports. Use quotation marks to enclose names of articles, papers, and technical memos.
Use an en dash to indicate multiple issue numbers, for example, vol. 5, nos. 1-4. Use a slash to denote the issue for bimonthly publications, for example, Aug./Sept. For quarterly publications, use an en dash to denote the issue, for example, Jan .-Mar. If the name of a column is cited in the reference, use initial caps without quotation marks, for example, Binary Critic.
After the name of a book, thesis, proceedings, or other book-like material, list the publisher, the publisher's location, year of publication, and inclusive page numbers if applicable. Delete terms such as Co., & Co., Ltd., S.A., Publisher, and Publishing Co.; retain Press. Where the publisher is a university, add its location if needed for clarity, for example, Miami University, Ohio.
Do not include the editor's name for a conference proceedings unless it is a carefully edited volume published as a regular book.
References for proceedings should tell where an interested reader can find the source, not where the conference took place. If a proceedings did not use a traditional publisher, provide the sponsoring organization and its location.
Capitalize the first and last words, and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, and subordinating conjunctions. Lowercase articles, coordinating conjunctions, and prepositions, regardless of length. Example: Toward Better Real-Time Programming through Dataflow.
To make a source easy for researchers to find, use the title as it originally appears. Do not add or remove hyphens, change words to preferred spellings, or lowercase internal capitals.
For foreign-language references, provide the original title first, followed by its English translation (if available) in brackets: Zur experimentalen Aesthetic [Toward an Experimental Aesthetic].
For a complete treatment of titles, see CMS 8.164-8.208.
Use square bracket notation such as . If you have multiple citations at the same place, separate the numbers by commas [1, 3, 5] and make sure they are in numerical order.
To reference a figure, use the same referencing scheme at the end of the caption:
Figure 1. Nichols Hall in 1906 
Please note, I recommend you use the MS Word cross-referencing capability to reference your bibliography, figures and tables. This allows you to insert a cross reference that can be updated when you add or delete references, tables, or figures.